TYPE OF BORDER CROSSINGS VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING MAKE

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Data from cases that IOM assisted over the last ten years show that nearly 80% of international human trafficking journeys cross through official border points, such as airports and land border control points. This indicates the crucial role that border agencies and service providers at border points can play to identify potential victims and refer them for protection and assistance.

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Female victims are more likely to be trafficked through an official border point than male victims: among all the women in the sample, official border points are used in 84% of cases, while the same figure for men is 73%.

Majority status

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Children are less likely to be trafficked through official border points: out of all the children in our sample, official border points are used in 56% of cases, against 80% for adults.

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Most victims are exploited at some point during their journey, regardless of whether they are trafficked through official or non-official border points.

The remaining victims (about a third) may still be unaware that they are being trafficked.

Exploitation type

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Gender

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Age

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Once again, analysis shows that children are less likely to be trafficked through official border points. Otherwise, the two age distributions are similar.

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Exploitation en route

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Exploitation sector

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Trafficking for forced labour is more likely to pass through official border crossings than trafficking for sexual exploitation (labour exploitation makes up 83% of official border crossings, but 64% of non-official border crossings, while sexual exploitation makes up 15% of official border crossings and 22% of non-official border crossings).

Victims exploited in the construction sector make up nearly half (43%) of all trafficking for forced labour through official border crossings, against 35% for non-official crossings. Manufacturing is next, accounting for 21% of cases (7% for non-official crossings), while agriculture make up 15% of cases (9% for non-official). Finally, domestic work accounts for 11% of all trafficking for forced labour through official border crossings (8% for non-official crossings) .

The percentages do not sum to a hundred, since not all sectors of exploitation are shown on this graph. Other sectors include begging and illicit activities, and accounted for very few border crossings.

Trafficking duration

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Victims trafficked through non-official border points tend to be trafficked for a longer period of time: 25% of them are trafficked for more than two years, while the same figure for victims trafficked through official border points is 19%.

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Means of control: Official border points

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For both official and non-official border crossings, most victims are controlled through confiscation of earnings, psychological abuse, false promises, restrictions on freedom of movement, and excessive working hours.

A high number of victims are trafficked through official border points using forged documents (9% of cases) or without having their own documents (23% of cases).

Own documents

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Travelled with other victims

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Means of control: Non-official border points

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However, victims crossing official border points are a lot more likely to be controlled through debt bondage, threats to themselves or others, restrictions on freedom of movement, and threats of action by law enforcement. Conversely, victims which are not trafficked through official border points are more likely to be controlled through the confiscation or destruction of important documents.

Forged documents

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Transport mode

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About a third of official border points are crossed by bus, another third by train, and 20% by plane. In comparison, unofficial borders are crossed mainly by car (28%), buses (26%) and trains (15%).

Victims often travel in groups: nearly 80% of official border crossings are carried out with other victims. In 62% of cases, victims who travel with others through an official border point are exploited at some point during their journey. When they travel in groups through official border points, victims are more likely to be travelling by bus (39%) and by train (38%) than by plane (11%).