- Industry sector: Manufacturing
Trafficking in the manufacturing sector
In CTDC data, 1,457 out of the 21,270 victims of labour exploitation were trafficked into the manufacturing sector.
97% of the data comes from case management data, while the rest comes from hotline data.
* To learn more about the size of the manufacturing sector relative to other labour exploitation sectors, click here (graph Sector of labour exploitation)
* To learn more about the size of labour exploitation relative to other types of exploitation, click here (graph Exploitation type)
Gender in the manufacturing sector
Adults and children in the manufacturing sector
Age and gender in the manufacturing sector
Among identified victims of trafficking in the manufacturing sector, gender is nearly balanced across the age distribution. However, victims over 48 are more likely to be females.
Profile of the recorded victims
This profile summarises the victims' most common characteristics, based on the graphs below.
The typical victim is slightly more likely to be female, over 30 years old. She’s more likely to be married than single, and she’s likely to have some technical training and university education. She's from Eastern Europe, and was probably also exploited there. She is most likely to be recruited into trafficking by someone outside of her circle of family and friends. The most common means of control keeping her in exploitation are false promises, restrictions of movement, excessive working hours, confiscation of documents, psychological abuse, confiscation of earnings, threats, restriction of medical care and physical abuse. Her exploitation is not likely to last more than one year.
Gender excluding the manufacturing sector
Victims who identify as Transgender/Non-conforming and victims whose gender is not recorded are not included in the computations, as there are not enough data for any significant analysis (CTDC partners are working to improve data availability on this issue). The graph on the right shows the gender of all victims, except those in the manufacturing sector. Compared to the rest of the dataset, victims trafficked into manufacturing are almost gender-balanced: 54% of them are female, and 46% are male.
Adults and children excluding the manufacturing sector
Almost all of identified victims trafficked into manufacturing are adults at the time of data collection, in contrast to the general profile of victims in the Global Dataset.
Age and gender excluding the manufacturing sector
In contrast, for the victims identified in the rest of the sectors, gender is balanced for younger and older age categories, while victims between 17 and 32 years old are mainly women.
Age in and excluding the manufacturing sector
Compared to recorded victims in other sectors, the age distribution of victims in the manufacturing sector is skewed towards the right: overall, victims exploited in the manufacturing sector appear to be older than in the rest of the dataset, and there seem to be almost no children below the age of 10 exploited in this sector. About 60% of the recorded victims in the manufacturing sector are over 30, against around 30% in the rest of the dataset. In this aspect, the manufacturing sector is similar to the construction sector and to the agriculture sector.
Marital status in and excluding the manufacturing sector
Education in and excluding the manufacturing sector
Overall, recorded victims in the manufacturing sector appear to have a higher level of education than victims in the rest of the dataset. Nearly half of them have some technical training, and 21% have a university education. In addition, fewer of them have only primary or secondary schooling compared to the rest of the dataset.
Intra or inter subregional trafficking
88% of victims of trafficking in the manufacturing sector are exploited in their region of origin, compared to 72% in the rest of the dataset.
In our dataset, 73% of the victims of trafficking in this sector come from Eastern Europe, and 14% from South-Eastern Asia. In turn, 74% of victims are exploited in Eastern Europe, and 11% in South-Eastern Asia. Recall that in the construction and agriculture sectors, most of the victims were also from, and exploited in, Eastern Europe.
Means of control in the manufacturing sector
Means of control excluding the manufacturing sector
In the CTDC dataset, victims trafficked into manufacturing are controlled most through false promises, restriction of movement, excessive working hours, confiscation of documents, psychological abuse, confiscation of earnings, threats, restriction of medical care and physical abuse.
When comparing with the rest of the dataset, it appears that identified victims exploited in manufacturing are a lot more likely to face most of the listed means of control. Exceptions are withholding of necessities, sexual abuse and psychoactive substances.
Duration of trafficking
Over 80% of victims trafficked into manufacturing were exploited for up to one year, similarly to victims in the agriculture and construction sectors. From there, the frequency for number of years trafficked decreases steadily, with the longest recorded trafficking duration for a victim of trafficking at 7 years. In the rest of the dataset, the general tendency is similar, but only about 60% of the victims were in exploitation for one year or less.