- Industry sector: Hospitality
Trafficking in the hospitality sector
In CTDC data, 1,213 victims of trafficking were trafficked into the hospitality sector. They represent 8% of the victims trafficked for labour exploitation.
75% of the data comes from case management data, while the rest comes from hotline data.
Gender in the hospitality sector
Adults and children in the hospitality sector
Age and gender in the hospitality sector
For nearly all age categories, the majority of identified victims of trafficking in the hospitality sector are female. However, males are relatively more numerous in the younger age groups, compared to males in other age groups. Notice that there are no victims aged 66 or older.
Profile of the recorded victims
This profile summarises the victims' most common characteristics, based on the graphs below.
The typical victim is a single female, between 18 and 29 years old. She's not likely to have any education above middle school or high school. She's likely to be from Eastern Europe, and was probably exploited in North America or Europe. She is most likely to be recruited into trafficking by someone outside of her circle of family and friends, although in the hospitality sector family members are more likely to be recruiters than in the other types of exploitation. She is mostly controlled by her traffickers through confiscation of earnings and false promises. Her exploitation is not likely to last more than one year.
Gender outside the hospitality sector
Victims who identify as Transgender/Non-conforming and victims whose gender is not recorded are not included in the computations, as there are not enough data for any significant analysis (CTDC partners are working to improve data availability on this issue). The graph on the right shows the gender of all victims, except those in the hospitality sector. In comparison, the hospitality sector appears to exploit relatively more women.
Adults and children outside the hospitality sector
Compared to the rest of the dataset, victims in the hospitality sector are less likely to be children at the time of data collection.
Age and gender outside the hospitality sector
In the rest of the dataset, women account for more than 60% of the identified victims in the age categories between 12 and 32 years old and over 66 years old. Males are slightly more numerous in the 9-11 age group.
Age in and outside the hospitality sector
About 57% of the recorded victims in the hospitality sector are between 18 and 26 years old, against 36% in the rest of the dataset. There also seem to be fewer children and fewer people over the age of 36 exploited in the hospitality sector than in the rest of the dataset.
Marital status in and outside the hospitality sector
45% of identified victims in the hospitality sector are single, against 47% in the rest of the dataset. Overall, their profile is quite close to the profile of victims trafficked in other sectors. Notice that there are slightly more divorced and widowed people in the hospitality sector than elsewhere.
Education in and outside the hospitality sector
In CTDC data, 40% of victims trafficked in the hospitality sector have completed middle school, against 21% in the rest of the dataset. In contrast, only 10% have completed some technical training, against 26% in the rest of the dataset. Otherwise, the profile of the victim trafficked in the hospitality sector is close to that of the other victims.
Intra or inter regional trafficking
A small majority (54%) of identified victims that are exploited in the hospitality sector is exploited in a region different from their region of origin. This contrasts with the other victims in the dataset, which are 27% to be exploited outside of their region of origin.
In CTDC data, 43% of the victims of trafficking in the hospitality sector are from Eastern Europe and 21% are from South-Eastern Asia. 26% of these victims are exploited in Northern America, 19% in Southern Europe and 19% in Eastern Europe.
For the purpose of this analysis, region refers to the UN Sub-Regions.
Identified victims exploited in the hospitality sector are most likely to be recruited into trafficking by someone outside their circle of family and friends, similarly to the victims in the rest of the dataset. However, the former are slightly more likely to be recruited by family members than the latter (25% against 16%).
Means of control in the hospitality sector
Means of control outside the hospitality sector
The most common means of control in this sector are confiscation of earnings and false promises.
When comparing with the rest of the dataset, there does not seem to be any large change in general trends. Identified victims in the hospitality sector are more likely to be subjected to earnings confiscation and threats of law enforcement. However, the use of psychoactive substances, withholding documents and physical and sexual abuse seem to be less frequent among these victims, compared to the wider dataset.
Duration of trafficking
77% of victims trafficked into the hospitality sector were exploited for up to one year. From there, the frequency for number of years trafficked decreases steadily, with the longest recorded trafficking duration for a victim of trafficking at 16 years. In the rest of the dataset, the general tendency is similar, but only 62% of the victims were in exploitation for one year or less.
Please note that information on trafficking duration was only available for 78 of the victims exploited in the hospitality sector.