- Industry sector: Agriculture
Trafficking in the agriculture sector
In CTDC data, 1,663 victims of trafficking were trafficked into the agriculture sector. They represent 12% of the victims trafficked for labour exploitation.
80% of the data comes from case management data, while the rest comes from hotline data.
Gender in the agriculture sector
Adults and children in the agriculture sector
Age and gender in the agriculture sector
Among identified child victims in the agriculture sector, most are males. From the age of seventeen onwards, gender becomes more balanced across males and females up until the very last age category, which is overwhelmingly male.
Profile of the recorded victims
This profile summarises the victims' most common characteristics, based on the graphs below.
The typical victim is equally likely to be male and female, over 30 years old. S/he’s more likely to be married than single. S/he's likely to have some secondary education or technical training. S/he's from Eastern Europe, and was probably also exploited there. S/he is most likely to be recruited into trafficking by someone outside of her/his circle of family and friends. S/he is mostly controlled by her/his traffickers through false promises, earnings confiscation, excessive working hours, psychological abuse, restriction of movement, confiscation of documents, and threats. Her/his exploitation is not likely to last more than one year.
Gender outside the agriculture sector
Victims who identify as Transgender/Non-conforming and victims whose gender is not recorded are not included in the computations, as there are not enough data for any significant analysis (CTDC partners are working to improve data availability on this issue). The graph on the right shows the gender of all victims, except those in the agriculture sector. In comparison, a gender balanced workforce appears to be exploited in this sector.
Adults and children outside the agriculture sector
Compared to the rest of the dataset, victims in the agriculture sector are less likely to be children at the time of data collection.
Age and gender outside the agriculture sector
The age/gender breakdown in the agriculture sector contrasts with that of the rest of the dataset. Indeed, for the victims identified in the rest of the sectors, gender is balanced for younger and older age categories, while victims between 17 and 32 years old are mainly women.
Age in and outside the agriculture sector
Similarly to the construction sector and to the manufacturing sector, identified victims exploited in the agriculture sector are older than in the rest of the dataset. There are almost no children below the age of 10. 55% of identified victims in the agriculture sector are over 30 years old, against 33% in the rest of the dataset.
Marital status in and outside the agriculture sector
Education in and outside the agriculture sector
The education level of identified victims in the agriculture sector is similar to the profile observed among victims exploited in the construction sector, as just under a third of people exploited in agriculture have technical training (compared to a quarter in the rest of the dataset), and many also have secondary education.
Intra or inter regional trafficking
72% of identified victims exploited in the agriculture sector stay in their region of origin during their exploitation, which is in line with the profile of victims in the rest of the dataset.
57% of victims in CTDC data who are trafficked into agriculture come from Eastern Europe. The next largest group is from Central Asia, constituting 17% of the people exploited in the agriculture sector. 58% of victims are also exploited in Eastern Europe, 20% in North America, and 12% in Central Asia. This is similar to the profile of victims in the construction sector.
For the purpose of this analysis, region refers to the UN Sub-Regions.
Means of control in the agriculture sector
Means of control outside the agriculture sector
In CTDC data, victims exploited in the agriculture sector are controlled mostly through false promises, earnings confiscation, excessive working hours, psychological abuse, restriction of movement, confiscation of documents, and threats.
Compared to the other victims, they are a lot more likely to endure confiscation of documents and earnings, false promises, and excessive working hours. However, almost none of them were subjected to sexual abuse and psychoactive substances.
Duration of trafficking
Almost 80% of victims trafficked into agriculture were exploited for up to one year, similarly to victims in the construction and manufacturing sectors. From there, the frequency for number of years trafficked decreases steadily, with the longest recorded trafficking duration for a victim of trafficking at 17 years. In the rest of the dataset, the general tendency is similar, but only about 60% of the victims were in exploitation for one year or less.